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Korean Facilities (8)

Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH)

- The Pohang Light Source (PLS) at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory(PAL) is a third-generation light source, the only synchrotron radiation facility in Korea, and the fifth machine of its kind in the world. In 1988, PAL was organized for the construction of the PLS. Ground-breaking was celebrated in 1991, and PLS construction was completed in 1994. In 1995, the PLS opened two beamlines to public users. The PLS was initially operated at 2GeV in 1995. Since 2002, the energy of the electron beam has been increased to 2.5GeV. The Pohang Light Source(PLS) was upgraded as the PLS-II in three years from 2009 to 2011. The electron beam energy was increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV, and the beam current rose from 170 mA to 400 mA. The number of straight sections for the insertion devices increased from 10 to 20. - Two or three beamlines have been added each year for the past 20 years, and as of 2017 we have in total 34 beamlines in operation and 2 beamlines under construction. Since its opening in 1995, PAL has attracted 38,000 (and growing) individual users from domestic and around the world and produced 12,000 scientific articles in total. For last twenty years, PAL has contributed to remarkable growths not only in quantity but in quality of synchrotron research.

Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH)

- The construction of PAL-XFEL, a 0.1nm hard X-ray FEL facility consisting of a 10-GeV S-band linac have been completed in the end of 2015. FEL-XFEL achieved 0.1 nm hard X-ray on the 29th November, 2016. - Comparative advantages in 21st century state-of-the-art science field, according to the construction of X-FEL accelerator and 3 beamlines. ( XSS(X-ray Scattering & Spectroscopy), NCI(Nano Crystallography & Coherent Imaging), SSS(Soft X-ray Scattering & Spectroscopy)) - In order to accomplish new researches using the 4th-generation synchrotron radiation accelerator, which is the third in the world, we focus on all the capabilities of the institute.

Korea Atomic Energy Research Insitute(KAERI)

-Build production and suppy systems with R&D, the accelerator radioisotopes for use in disease diagnosis and treatment of people -By a stable supply to radiology researcher as well as exports foundation with radiology development and national self-sufficiency improved radioisotope

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World’s Facilities (23)

Germany / University of Stuttgart

The Dust Accelerator facility located at Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg is operated by the University of Stuttgart, Institute of Space Systems (IRS).A 2 MV electrostatic field accelerates micron- and sub-micron-sized dust particles to speeds between 0.5 and 100 km/s. Dust powder used are coated minerals (olivine, pyroxene), organics (coated polystyrene) or metals (Fe, Al, Ni, ...). The dust source provides approx. 30 particles per sec. The speed, charge and mass of each accelerated particle is measured in-situ. A selection electronics can selected individual particles within a certain speed or mass range.The target chambers are available (largest has 1.4 m diameter). A vacuum of 1e-6 mbar is applied.Tests are performed for space instrument development/calibration, space weathering, hyper-velocity impact physics (e.g. mass spectrometry).Studies at the dust accelerator are multi-disciplinary and are relevant in the field of geoscience, physics, chemistry, astrophysics and astrobiology. Phenomena under study include dust charging, dust magnetosphere interactions, dust impact flashes and the possibility of obtaining compositional measurements of impact plasma plumes. Such data has been shown to be of direct relevance to space missions like Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Rosetta, Stardust, New Horizon or BepiColombo. Future projects to the Moon, to the inner Solar System (Solar Probe Plus), to the Jovian system and to Saturn will carry dust instrumentation which has to be developed with the help of micrometeoroid impact simulations in the laboratory. The recent Stardust mission collected and returned samples of interplanetary and interstellar dust grains to Earth. Sample preparation and analysis requires the study and understanding of grain-collector material interaction during hypervelocity impacts. Test and calibration of dust collectors and of in-situ dust detectors onboard interplanetary probes or Earth satellites is a major application of the facility. The laboratory generation and analysis of in-situ mass spectra of high-speed organic micro-grain impacts is essential for astrobiology studies and provide the basis for an understanding of the composition of interplanetary or interstellar micrometeoroids.http://www.irs.uni-stuttgart.de/cosmicdust/laboratory/ and http://www.hlrs.de/.

Italy / Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

The Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), founded in 1961, are one of the four national laboratories of Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN).Accelerator facilities in operation at LNL provide light and heavy-ion beams up to 30 MeV/u. In particular: - Tandem/ALPI: a 15 MV XTU-Tandem (A<90), coupled to the ALPI superconducting booster, delivering heavy-ion beams with energies up to 10 MeV/u. - PIAVE-ALPI superconducting linac: an ECR ion source injects superconducting RFQs and QWRs, delivering ion beams up to approximately 15 MeV/u. - Van de Graaff accelerators AN2000 (2.5 MV) and CN (7.0 MV ) providing light-ion beams for applied, interdisciplinary and biomedical physics. The research fields range from fundamental nuclear physics to accelerator technologies as well as several interdisciplinary activities, in collaboration with researchers from various national and international scientific bodies. Activities in the field of astroparticle physics (gravitational waves) are also in progress.Scientific proposals requiring access to the laboratory facilities undergo a peer review selection based on the scientific merit. The proposal evaluation is carried out by a Program Advisory Committee.

Czech Republic / Czech Technical University in Prague

The laboratory of the Van de Graaff accelerator is devoted to basic research in experimental low-energy nuclear physics and applications such as calibration and testing of radiation detectors and nuclear analytical methods for materials analysis. The laboratory belongs to the Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (UTEF) of the Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague. The facility serves as source of low-energy light ions and as a source of tunable monochromatic fast neutrons.Continuous beams are provided as follows. Light ions can be also provided in low intensity (down to 10^3/cm^2/s). Neutrons of discrete energy (accuracy few %) are provided in the indicated ranges. The neutron sources are calibrated and monitored with active devices (liquid scintillator NE 213, 3He Bonner sphere) with online display and evaluation.

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Publication (3)

Youngdo Joo, et. al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A, Volume 843, 21 January 2017, pp 50-60, doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2016.11.005

In order to achieve beam acceleration to the beam energy of 10 GeV at the end of its 716 m-long linear accelerator (Linac), the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) is going to operate the Stanford Linear Accelerator Energy Doubler (SLED) at the maximum klystron output peak power of 80 MW, with a pulse length of 4 μs, and at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The original SLED that had been used in Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) can no longer sustain such a high-power operation because excessive radiation caused by RF breakdown has been frequently detected even at the lower klystron peak power during the PLS-II operation. Therefore, a new SLED is designed by modifying both the 3-dB power hybrid and the waveguide-cavity coupling structure of the original SLED where the excessive radiation has been mainly detected. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation in the CST Microwave Studio shows that the new SLED has a peak electric field and a surface current lower than those of the original SLED at the same level of the RF input peak power, which would secure stable high-power operation. All of the 42 SLEDs in the PAL-XFEL Linac are newly fabricated and installed. During the RF conditioning of the PAL-XFEL Linac, no significant vacuum and radiation issue was found in the new SLEDs. Finally, the accelerated electron beam energy of 10 GeV obtained at the end of the PAL-XFEL Linac verified that the RF performance of the new SLED is stable.

Jaehyun Lee, et. al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A, Volume 843 (2017), pp 39–45 dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2016.11.001

X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) require electron beams with a peak current of several kA and a transverse emittance below 1 mm mrad. The uncorrelated energy spread of the beam should be as small as 0.01% of the beam energy. A photoinjector generates an electron beam satisfying the requirements, however the uncorrelated energy spread of the beam is too small, about one keV. A beam with such a low uncorrelated energy spread may suffer from the longitudinal microbunching instability when the beam is accelerated and compressed through a linear accelerator. A laser heater system in the injector minimizes the microbunching instability growth by controlling the uncorrelated energy spread of the beam. In this paper, we introduce the PAL-XFEL laser heater system and the commissioning result. The laser heating effects depending on the undulator gap, infrared laser pulse energy and laser beam size are studied. Experimental studies on the laser heating depending on the relative spatial position between the infrared laser and electron beam are discussed in detail.

Joonkon Kim, John A. Eliades, Byung-Yong Yu, Weon Cheol Lim, Keun Hwa Chae, Jonghan Song Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 391 (2017) 57–63

The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST, Seoul, Republic of (S.) Korea) ion beam facility consists of three electrostatic accelerators: a 400 kV single ended ion implanter, a 2 MV tandem accelerator system and a 6 MV tandem accelerator system. The 400 kV and 6 MV systems were purchased from High Voltage Engineering Europa (HVEE, Netherlands) and commissioned in 2013, while the 2 MV system was purchased from National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC, USA) in 1995. These systems are used to provide traditional ion beam analysis (IBA), isotope ratio analysis (ex. accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS), and ion implantation/irradiation for domestic industrial and academic users. The main facility is the 6 MV HVEE Tandetron system that has an AMS line currently used for 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36 Cl, 41Ca and 129I analyses, and three lines for IBA that are under construction. Here, these systems are introduced with their specifications and initial performance results.